fault tolerant control

F. Stoican, Olaru, S., Seron, M. M., and De Doná, J. A., “A fault tolerant control scheme based on sensor switching and dwell time”, in Proceedings of the 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2010, p. 756–761.Abstract
The present paper deals with a switching control scheme for a plant with multiple estimator-controller-actuator pairs. The scheme has to deal with specific problems originated by the switching between the different feedback loops and accommodate to faults in the observation channels (sensors outputs). The main contribution is a fault tolerant switching scheme with stability guarantees assured by a pre-imposed dwell-time. The detection and the fault tolerance capabilities are assured through set separation for the residual signals corresponding to healthy and faulty functioning. Another contribution of the paper resides in a recovery technique for faulty sensors which makes use of a virtual sensor whose estimation, based on an optimization procedure, minimizes recovery time.
F. Stoican and Olaru, S., “Fault Tolerant Positioning System for a Multisensor Control Scheme”, in Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, part of 2010 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, Yokohama, Japan, 2010, p. 1051–1056.Abstract
The present paper deals with a fault tolerant control scheme for a multisensor plant based on set theoretic methods under the assumption of bounded exogenous signals. Robust guarantees for the global stability of the system and the separability and identification of abrupt faults occurring in the sensor outputs are provided. The methodology is exemplified on a positioning system showing improved detection and isolation capabilities even for reference signals passing with oscillations around the position corresponding to faulty functioning of the sensors.
S. Olaru, De Doná, J. A., Seron, M. M., and Stoican, F., “Positive invariant sets for fault tolerant multisensor control schemes”, International Journal of Control, vol. 83, no. 12, p. 2622–2640, 2010.Abstract
This article deals with fault tolerant multisensor control schemes for systems with linear dynamics. Positive invariance is a common analysis and control design tool for systems affected by bounded constraints and disturbances. This article revisits the construction of \epsilon-approximations of minimal robust positive invariant sets for linear systems upon contractive set-iterations. The cases of switching between different sets of disturbances and the inclusion of a predefined region of the state space are treated in detail. All these results are used in multisensor control schemes which have to deal with specific problems originated by the switching between different estimators and by the presence of faults in some of the sensors. The construction of positive invariant sets for different operating regimes provides, in this context, effective fault detection information. Within the same framework, global stability of the switching strategies can be assured if the invariant sets topology allows the exclusive selection of estimates obtained from healthy sensors.
F. Stoican, Olaru, S., and Bitsoris, G., “Controlled invariance-based fault detection for multisensory control systems”, IET Control Theory & Applications Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 606 – 611, 2012.Abstract
In this study, set theoretic methods are used to design a fault-tolerant scheme for a multisensor control application. The basic principle is the separation of the invariant sets for the estimations of the state and tracking error under healthy and faulty functioning. The fault scenario assumes abrupt changes of the observation equations. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of controlled invariant sets in the fault detection mechanism. The control action is chosen in order to guarantee the closed-loop positive invariance of a candidate region when the exogenous signals (additive disturbances, noise and reference/set-points) are bounded.
F. Stoican, Olaru, S., Seron, M. M., and De Doná, J. A., “Reference governor design for tracking problems with fault detection guarantees”, Journal of Process Control, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 829–836, 2012.Abstract
The present paper deals with the reference tracking problem for processes with linear dynamics and multisensor information subject to abrupt sensor faults. A key point for fault tolerance will be the separation between healthy and faulty closed-loop behavior upon a set-characterization approach. This is achieved through set theoretic operations involving the healthy/faulty behavior of residual signals related to the system dynamics. As a main contribution, a reference governor scheme is designed using a receding horizon technique. It is shown that fault detection guarantees can be achieved by appropriate adjusting of the governor's delay/prediction window under mild assumptions on the fault scenario.
F. Stoican, Olaru, S., De Doná, J. A., and Seron, M. M., “Improvements in the Sensor Recovery Mechanism for a Multisensor Control Scheme”, in Proceedings of the 29th American Control Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 2010, p. 4052–4057.Abstract
This paper deals with a multisensor scheme based on set theoretic principles, whereby different invariant sets that characterize healthy and faulty functioning of system components are computed offline. Such sets allow to partition the ensemble of sensors into ‘healthy’, ‘faulty’ and ‘under recovery’ subclasses. Fault detection and isolation consists of online setmembership verifications with low computational complexity. Sensors that are deemed healthy are utilized in the computation of the feedback control law, while sensors that are deemed ‘faulty’ or ‘under recovery’ are prevented from participating in the feedback control action. The main focus of this paper is on the reintegration of ‘under recovery’ sensors, that is to say, the transition of sensors from the ‘under recovery’ to the ‘healthy’ sensor subclass. This transition, in contrast to all other possible transitions, is particularly difficult to evaluate since it involves set membership conditions based on unmeasurable quantities. This difficulty is circumvented by resorting to necessary and sufficient conditions for the recognition of recovery, which are based exclusively upon measurable quantities. The interplay between the necessary conditions and the sufficient conditions, together with the particular system structure and fault detection mechanism, allows to obtain further important improvements in the recovery procedure in terms of transient times and sensitivity to the topology of the invariant sets.
F. Stoican, Olaru, S., Seron, M. M., and De Doná, J. A., “A fault tolerant control scheme based on sensor-actuation channel switching and dwell time”, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 18, 2014.Abstract
The present paper proposes a switching control scheme for a plant with multiple sensor–estimator/control–actuator pairs. The scheme is shown to handle the specific stability problems originated by the switching between the different feedback loops and accommodate to faults in the measurement (sensors) channels. The main contribution is a fault tolerant switching scheme with stability guarantees assured by a pre-imposed dwell time. The detection and the fault tolerance capabilities are achieved through the separation of sets associated with suitable residual signals corresponding to healthy and faulty functioning. Another contribution of the paper resides in a recovery technique for the post-fault reintegration of the biased estimations. This technique makes use of a virtual sensor whose associated estimation, based on an optimization procedure, minimizes the recovery time.
F. Stoican, Olaru, S., Seron, M. M., and De Doná, J. A., “A discussion of sensor recovery techniques for fault tolerant multisensor schemes”, International Journal of Systems Science, vol. 45, no. 8, p. 15, 2014.Abstract
The present paper deals with the interplay between healthy and faulty sensor functioning in a multisensor scheme based on a switching control strategy. Fault tolerance guarantees have been recently obtained in this framework based upon the characterisation of invariant sets for state estimations in healthy and faulty functioning. A source of conservativeness of this approach is related to the issue of sensor recovery. A common working hypothesis has been to assume that once a sensor switches to faulty functioning it can no longer be used by the control mechanism even if at an ulterior moment it switches back to healthy functioning. In the current paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the acknowledgement of sensor recovery and we propose and compare different techniques for the reintegration of sensors in the closed-loop decision-making mechanism.
Set-Theoretic Fault Tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems
F. Stoican and Olaru, S., Set-Theoretic Fault Tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems, Engineering & Materials Science. London: Wiley - ISTE, 2013, p. 176. Buy onlineAbstract
Fault-tolerant control theory is a well-studied topic but the use of the sets in detection, isolation and/or reconfiguration is rather tangential. The authors of this book propose a systematic analysis of the set-theoretic elements and devise approaches which exploit advanced elements within the field. The main idea is to translate fault detection and isolation conditions into those conditions involving sets. Furthermore, these are to be computed efficiently using positive invariance and reachability notions. Constraints imposed by exact fault control are used to define feasible references (which impose persistent excitation and, thus, non-convex feasible sets). Particular attention is given to the reciprocal influences between fault detection and isolation on the one hand, and control reconfiguration on the other.

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